This page lists the free trade agreements signed by Turkey.  In 1995, Turkey signed a customs union with the European Union for products other than agricultural products and services. Since 2018, the EU has been Turkey`s main trading partner, with 50% of its exports and 36% of its imports.  The rules of origin (Annex I) are governed by the regional convention on pan-Euro-Mediterranean rules of origin. This will allow materials to be accumulated from the EFTA, Turkey and other Pan-Euro Med Member States as soon as the relevant agreements between the parties concerned have been concluded. The Turkey-EU customs union has eliminated tariffs, quantitative restrictions and measures of equivalent effect in trade in industrial products to ensure the free movement of goods. As a result of the customs union, Turkey has opened its internal market to competition in the EU and third countries, while guaranteeing its exporters free access to the EU market. In addition, Turkey is committed to adapting to the preferential regimes that the EU applies to third countries and to harmonising its legislation with the EU acquis in a wide range of areas, including technical standards and regulations, as well as competition policy. However, agricultural trade is carried out between the contracting parties under the preferential system; trade in steel products is governed by the free trade agreement between Turkey and the European Coal and Steel Community. The provisions relating to the protection of intellectual property rights (Article 15 and a new Annex XII) concern, among other things, patents, trademarks, copyrights and geographical indications. The provisions on the protection of intellectual property rights (Chapter 4 and Appendix XX) include trademarks, copyrights, patents and geographical indications and include provisions relating to respect for intellectual property rights and cooperation between the parties.
They are based on the WTO agreement on trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights (TRIPS) and provide a high level of protection, taking into account the principles of the most favoured nation and national treatment. In today`s world, countries tend to enter into bilateral and regional free trade agreements, as the World Trade Organization (WTO) has achieved a high level of liberalization, with insufficient WTO rules under current conditions and an inefficient multilateral trading system to allow better market access. As a result of this trend, some 400 free trade agreements are being notified to the WTO. Turkey is a member of the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership (Euromed) and should therefore conclude free trade agreements with all other Mediterranean partners in order to create a Euro-Mediterranean free trade area. Turkey negotiates and concludes free trade agreements with third countries in parallel with the global trend towards free trade agreements and its commitment to the customs union. Under the EU common tariff, preferential trade regimes are the most important part of trade policy towards third countries. The agreement provides tariff concessions for agricultural products processed under Schedule III. Trade in agricultural commodities is covered by three bilateral agricultural agreements negotiated between the EFTA state concerned, Iceland, Norway and Switzerland/Liechtenstein and Turkey. While bilateral agricultural agreements between Norway and Turkey, as well as Iceland and Turkey, remain in force, the bilateral agricultural agreement between Switzerland and Turkey has also been modernized and will replace the existing bilateral agricultural agreement after the modernized EFTA-Turkey free trade agreement comes into force.